Decompression sickness (DCS; also known as divers' disease, the bends or caisson disease) describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurisation. DCS most commonly refers to problems arising from underwater diving decompression (i.e., during ascent)
This phenomenon has become so powerful a predictor of behavior, even outside the realm of politics, that the researchers who did the study say that political affiliation now has more influence on what people do and how they behave than race does.
The theories underlying PAM and other prediction markets are the Efficient Capital Markets Hypothesis (ECMH) and the Hayek hypotheses. These hypotheses explain how information is aggregated such that market prices provide accurate estimates on the likelihood of future outcomes. According to ECMH, capital markets are “extremely efficient in reflecting information about individual stocks and about the stock market as a whole,” such that no amount of analysis in an attempt to forecast future stock prices can beat the market.