The underlying principle of the bootstrap is deceptively simple. Relatively small samples generally provide very reliable information about the shape of the populations from which they are drawn, even though a sample may not provide reliable information about other characteristics of a population. Using the bootstrap method, we treat this sample as a population and take repeated samples with replacement from it; these are referred to as bootstrap samples. These bootstrap samples provide us with reliable insight into important characteristics of various sample estimates, and they enable us to construct reliable confidence intervals and conduct valid hypotheses tests.
The real injustice is this: “We have all these parenting experts and doctors and psychologists, and they’re leaders in their fields, but most of them didn’t grow up in a connected world,” says Shapiro. “They didn’t raise kids in a connected world, and they’re just trying to use the same guidance and advice they always have without considering the new context.” The dominant conversation around kids and tech oversimplifies the role of technology in kids’ lives, reducing it to a distraction and a menace or, at best, a tool to be used sparingly and with caution. This is a parenting ethos for a previous generation. And most of us, without a known, actionable alternative, buy in.
By examining Wikipedia’s Talk pages, where editors discuss their thoughts about an article, the team found that the intense disagreement that happens between ideologically polarised editors often led to a more focused debate, with editors on both sides admitting the process had improved the final article.