A hierarchy is a system of nested groups. A standard organizational chart is a hierarchy, with employees grouped into business units and departments reporting to a centralized authority. Other kinds of hierarchies include government bureaucracies, biological taxonomies, and a system of menus in a software program. Hierarchies are inherently “top-down,” in that they are designed to enable centralized control from a single, privileged position.
X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the aluminum substitution may be responsible for the durability of the seawater concrete: the ancient material contained a rare hydrothermal mineral, aluminum tobermorite, that is absent in modern concrete formulations. The researchers determined tobermorite has higher stiffness than modern concrete binders and may serve as a model for future concrete strength and durability.
As John Seely Brown and Paul Duguid write in The Social Life of Information, “While it’s clear that self-organization is extraordinarily productive, so too is formal organization. Indeed, the two perform an intricate (and dynamic) balancing act, each compensating for the other’s failings. Self-organization overcomes formal organizing’s rigidity. Formal organization keeps at bay self-organization’s tendency to self-destruct.”
we need to think in terms of Analog Equivalent Rights: the notion that our children must have the same rights in their digital environment, as our parents had in their analog environment. Correction: our children should have at least the same rights. This shouldn’t even be controversial.
The EOS mainnet launched on !date:6/10/18. Immediately EOS' off-chain government felt compelled to freeze allegedly thieving accounts in violation of the EOS constitution. CTO Dan Larimer called for a new one. The episode highlights the advantages of protocol-level governance.
The rawtransaction format is hashed to create the transaction identifier (txid). From these txids, the merkle tree is constructed by pairing each txid with one other txid and then hashing them together. If there are an odd number of txids, the txid without a partner is hashed with a copy of itself.