Alfred Habdank Skarbek Korzybski ([kɔˈʐɨpski]; July 3, 1879 – March 1, 1950) was a Polish-American independent scholar who developed a field called general semantics, which he viewed as both distinct from, and more encompassing than, the field of semantics. He argued that human knowledge of the world is limited both by the human nervous system and the languages humans have developed, and thus no one can have direct access to reality, given that the most we can know is that which is filtered through the brain's responses to reality. His best known dictum is "The map is not the territory".
Moroz now counts nine to 12 independent evolutionary origins of the nervous system – including at least one in cnidaria (the group that includes jellyfish and anemones), three in echinoderms (the group that includes sea stars, sea lilies, urchins and sand dollars), one in arthropods (the group that includes insects, spiders and crustaceans), one in molluscs (the group that includes clams, snails, squid and octopuses), one in vertebrates – and now, at least one in ctenophores.
‘There is more than one way to make a neuron, more than one way to make a brain,’ says Moroz. In each of these evolutionary branches, a different subset of genes, proteins and molecules was blindly chosen, through random gene duplication and mutation, to take part in building a nervous system.
Double-spending is an error in a digital cash scheme in which the same single digital token is spent twice or more. This is possible because a digital token consists of a digital file that can be duplicated or falsified. As with counterfeit money, such double-spending are Inflation by "create" a new amount of not-removed currency which already paid plus same amount of paid currency belonging to the receiver, or "created" multiple paid amount to receiver from nothing, causing devalue the currency, and diminish user trust as well as the circulation and retention of the currency.
Perry Gandhi Mehrling received his A.B (magna cum laude) and his Ph.D. from Harvard University and his M.Sc. from the London School of Economics. Mehrling was valedictorian of the class of 1977 at Boston Latin School. He is currently a Professor in the Economics Department at Barnard College/Columbia University and the Director of Educational Programs at the Institute for New Economic Thinking, a global not for profit organization dedicated to changing the way economics is currently taught. He teaches a "Economics of Money and Banking" MOOC on the Coursera website.
In economics, Gresham's law is a monetary principle stating that "bad money drives out good". For example, if there are two forms of commodity money in circulation, which are accepted by law as having similar face value, the more valuable commodity will disappear from circulation.