QUESTS
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Semantic similarity is a metric defined over a set of documents or terms, where the idea of distance between them is based on the likeness of their meaning or semantic content as opposed to similarity which can be estimated regarding their syntactical representation (e.g. their string format). These are mathematical tools used to estimate the strength of the semantic relationship between units of language, concepts or instances, through a numerical description obtained according to the comparison of information supporting their meaning or describing their nature.[1] The term semantic similarity is often confused with semantic relatedness. Semantic relatedness includes any relation between two terms, while semantic similarity only includes "is a" relations.[2] For example, "car" is similar to "bus", but is also related to "road" and "driving". Computationally, semantic similarity can be estimated by defining a topological similarity, by using ontologies to define the distance between terms/concepts. For example, a naive metric for the comparison of concepts ordered in a partially ordered set and represented as nodes of a directed acyclic graph (e.g., a taxonomy), would be the shortest-path linking the two concept nodes. Based on text analyses, semantic relatedness between units of language (e.g., words, sentences) can also be estimated using statistical means such as a vector space model to correlate words and textual contexts from a suitable text corpus.
04/03/17
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psychologists recently conducted a comprehensive review of the extent to which Nobel Prize winners in the sciences, members of the Royal Society and US National Academy of Sciences, and members of the US public reported engaging in arts and crafts-based pursuits. They found that members of the Royal Society and National Academy of Sciences were almost twice as likely to report engaging in arts and crafts pursuits as the general public. Eminent Nobel laureate scientists were almost three times more likely to report such activities.
04/03/17
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metamitya
metamitya
Some nice visualizations here.
Some nice visualizations here.
This map, made with Gephi, represents the patterns of VVC extracted from obituaries in Eugene, Oregon. Family and friends are central values here.
04/03/17
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It might be that human values will forever remain somewhat mysterious. But to the extent that our values are revealed in our behavior, you would hope to be able to prove that the machine will be able to “get” most of it. There might be some bits and pieces left in the corners that the machine doesn’t understand or that we disagree on among ourselves. But as long as the machine has got the basics right, you should be able to show that it cannot be very harmful.
04/03/17
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“What you get from dance and singing on its own is a sense of belonging. It happens very quickly. What happens, I suspect, is that it can trigger very easily trance states,” Dunbar said. He theorizes that these spiritual experiences matter much more than dance and song alone. “Once you’ve triggered that, you’re in, I think, a different ballgame. It ramps up massively. That’s what’s triggered. There’s something there.”
04/02/17
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"John, when people thought the earth was flat, they were wrong. When people thought the earth was spherical, they were wrong. But if you think that thinking the earth is spherical is just as wrong as thinking the earth is flat, then your view is wronger than both of them put together."
06/22/17
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Hoffman has spent the past three decades studying perception, artificial intelligence, evolutionary game theory and the brain, and his conclusion is a dramatic one: The world presented to us by our perceptions is nothing like reality. What’s more, he says, we have evolution itself to thank for this magnificent illusion, as it maximizes evolutionary fitness by driving truth to extinction.
04/02/17
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metamitya
metamitya
Nice concise explanation and clarifying analogy to potential energy of ball on ground or on mountain. Although it seems like gauge invariance is similar to matrix rank in linear algebra, or the derivative of constants going to 0. I guess it comunicates that the coordinates do not impact the system/model.
Nice concise explanation and clarifying analogy to potential energy of ball on ground or on mountain. Although it seems like gauge invariance is similar to matrix rank in linear algebra, or the derivative of constants going to 0. I guess it comunicates that the coordinates do not impact the system/model.
04/02/17
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One must keep in mind that communism was actually dependent on a society creating--through a prior phase of industrialization and capitalism--such affluence and abundance that it could meet all citizens' realistic needs (communism as Marx envisioned it requires a post-scarcity economy, among other things). This was never the case in any real, existing society. All "communist societies" were societies that have adopted a state socialism model in order to attempt to bring about a communist society (at least, that's what they claim). It's never actually produced communism, which is likely something that cannot exist. Communism is more like a theoretical utopian goal than an actual real thing. It's an imaginary concept used primarily for engaging in thought experiments--like unicorns or actual free markets. It is unfortunate that, over the years, it has been used to justify a great deal of violence both among different societies and within individual societies.
04/01/17
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Yet instances of selfish behavior also abound in society. One recent study used a version of the classic Prisoner's Dilemma, which can test people's willingness to set aside selfish interests to reach a greater good. After modeling different strategies and outcomes, the researchers found that being selfish was more advantageous than cooperating. The benefit may be short-lived, however. Another study showed that players who cooperated did better in the long run.
04/01/17
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Yet instances of selfish behavior also abound in society. One recent study used a version of the classic Prisoner's Dilemma, which can test people's willingness to set aside selfish interests to reach a greater good. After modeling different strategies and outcomes, the researchers found that being selfish was more advantageous than cooperating. The benefit may be short-lived, however. Another study showed that players who cooperated did better in the long run.
04/01/17
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The is–ought problem, as articulated by Scottish philosopher and historian David Hume (1711–76), states that many writers make claims about what ought to be on the basis of statements about what is. Hume found that there seems to be a significant difference between positive statements (about what is) and prescriptive or normative statements (about what ought to be), and that it is not obvious how one can coherently move from descriptive statements to prescriptive ones. The is–ought problem is also known as Hume's law, or Hume's guillotine.
03/31/17
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metamitya
metamitya
re-education and rehabilitation :(
re-education and rehabilitation :(
And though she is, and will remain, with us, the incident prompted a volley of abusive and self-righteous rhetoric, drove more than one faculty member to advise students away from courses taught by "that woman," and stirred a renewed emphasis on "re-education" and "rehabilitation." Astonishing, of course, that those very terms — "re-education" and "rehabilitation" — do not scare the hell out of academics who use them and hear them. That they do not call to mind the not so distant history of authoritarian regimes in Europe, or lead on to the thought that "diversity," for many of us in the academy, has now come to mean a plurality of sameness.
03/25/17