Basically the idea is that you assemble a Namecoin block and hash it, and then insert that hash into a Bitcoin block. Now when you solve the Bitcoin block at a difficulty level greater to or equal to the Namecoin difficulty level, it will be proof that that amount of work has been done for the Namecoin block. The Namecoin protocol has been altered to accept a Bitcoin block (solved at or above the Namecoin difficulty level) containing a hash of a Namecoin block as proof of work for the Namecoin block. The Bitcoin block will only be acceptable to the Bitcoin network if it is at the difficulty of the Bitcoin network.
Loops as you can see above traverse typical functional lines. To enable and improve them you typically need every function represented working towards the same goal, the output of the loop. This helps the teams align and organize around the loop rather than by function and reduces the teams optimizing at the expense of each other
Srinivasan: Anything scarce will ultimately be tokenized, because the benefits of digitization and increased liquidity are so great. That means cash, stocks, bonds, commodities, houses, cars, digital goods of every kind, and perhaps human time as well in the form of the personal token described above.