Moroz now counts nine to 12 independent evolutionary origins of the nervous system – including at least one in cnidaria (the group that includes jellyfish and anemones), three in echinoderms (the group that includes sea stars, sea lilies, urchins and sand dollars), one in arthropods (the group that includes insects, spiders and crustaceans), one in molluscs (the group that includes clams, snails, squid and octopuses), one in vertebrates – and now, at least one in ctenophores.
‘There is more than one way to make a neuron, more than one way to make a brain,’ says Moroz. In each of these evolutionary branches, a different subset of genes, proteins and molecules was blindly chosen, through random gene duplication and mutation, to take part in building a nervous system.
In Texas, for instance, 116 people are currently serving life sentences on charges of simple drug possession. Seven of those people earned their sentences for possessing quantities of drugs weighing between 1 gram and 4 grams, or less than a typical sugar packet.
The 'modern denial of human nature', he argues, is rooted in three beliefs - the Blank Slate, the Noble Savage and the Ghost in the Machine. According to the Blank Slate view, human infants are born with empty heads and acquire all their knowledge socially. The ideology of the Noble Savage suggests that humans are naturally born good, and that society corrupts their innate goodness. The Ghost in the Machine is the term that the philosopher Gilbert Ryle gave (with 'deliberate abusiveness', he said) to Descartes' view of the mind as an immaterial spirit distinct from the physical world.
Best case: How a proponent of the existence and significant impact of the phenomenon of white privilege, say a "liberal" or "progressive", would intelligently support the idea. Describe the phenomenon in detail with examples, how accepting the idea would impact us, and what we should do to fight it.
Whereas the original U.S. Constitution did not use the word "slavery" or the term "Negro Slaves", but used instead "Person[s] held to Service or Labor" which included whites in indentured servitude, the Confederate Constitution addresses the legality of slavery directly and by name.