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A public address is embedded inside the output “script” so that it can only be spent using the private key corresponding to that public address. If we consider this output to be a database row, what we have is a database with per-row permissions which are based on public key cryptography. Furthermore, every transaction presents a publicly auditable proof that its creator(s) had the right to delete/modify its prior rows. This (I believe) is a genuine novelty in database technology.